THE PRESENT AND FUTURE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
Nuclear weapons have defined the 20th century, and after much of disinterest from the public in the post-Cold War era, they have caught the interest of the public eye once more.
The new era of public interest in this topic starts with the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action known as the Iran nuclear deal which allowed Iran to “redesign, convert, and reduce its nuclear facilities in order to lift all nuclear-related economical sanctions”, freeing up tens of billions of dollars in oil revenue and frozen assets.
Aside from this historic agreement, another country’s activities are raising world’s interest in the future of nuclear weapons: North Korean ballistic missile tests. Children in Japanese schools closer to Japanese maritime border with North Korea, are holding evacuation drills, heightening a sense of urgency among public.
Immediate ballistic threat raises security questions and future political aspects. Answering the threat by using nuclear weapons, casts doubt on weapons maintenance as well as qualifications and discipline of personnel upholding weapons.
Nuclear weapons are also regarded in energy policy. The so-called “Nuclear Weapon Countries” are economically more developed than countries that do not possess nuclear weapons. Could the issue of equal development produce changes to main idea of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)?
HUMANITARIAN NEEDS ACROSS SOUTH SUDAN
South Sudan declared independence in 2011, and since 2013, the “youngest country in the world” is involved in civil war.
United Nation Security Council followed deterioration of living conditions in South Sudan and has subsequently produced four resolutions in the last two years.
The newest crisis is one concerning medical treatment of civilians. It has become United Nations Children’s Fund's (Unicef) key goal for the country to vaccinate 1.2 million children in 2017, in order to stop measles outbreak. Unfortunately, there was no qualified staff to administer vaccines and the medicine has not been properly stored.
More then two million refugees in neighboring countries of Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Sudan are facing inadequate shelter and are in need of urgent assistance including food, water, protection, education and medical care.
Out of two million refugees, almost half are underage children with no families.
These civilians are affected most in war-torn areas. Nearly one in five have been forced to flee their homes remaining at constant risk of recruitment by armed forces, as well as vulnerable to violence, sexual abuse and exploitation.
Aid provided to this area by the United Nations is jeopardized by constant lack of funding. It is currently only 52% funded, while UNHCR missions are only 11% funded.
The United Nations Security Council should give recommendations to parties involved as well as urging Member States to contribute in resolving this complex humanitarian crisis.
UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL
* Permanent member
the United Kingdom*
the United States*
MALNUTRITION, CHILD LABOUR AND THE CHILDREN OF DR CONGO
The Democratic Republic of Congo has been raided with conflict since 1996, and United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) has been active in the territory of DR Congo since 2001, right after Second Congo war.
One million people are currently displaced due to violence. Conditions in which civilians live are deplorable, with no access to health care, food or safe-drinking water and with little or no access to safe shelter and medication. Among all civilian groups, children in DR Congo are the in the most vulnerable position.
639 elementary and secondary schools were either destroyed or attacked by militia in the Kasaï Central and Kasaï provinces. In some cases, teachers were directly targeted. The United Nations estimates that more than 35 000 children were affected by the attacks, occupations and closures of schools due to external threats.
Children are disproportionately affected by the conflict. They are exposed to extreme risks of violence. The United Nations have documented over 500 cases where children, girls and boys are used as combatants or human shields by the militia, resulting in a significant number of victims during the clashes between the militia and the security forces. This year, at least 58 children have been killed and 46 injured by the conflict in the province.
In relatively peaceful areas, children are part of illegal child labor in cobalt mines. There they work in life threatening conditions while earning very small wages.
The members of the Security Council expressed their concern at the challenges of establishing peace in Democratic Republic of Congo, they called on all stakeholders to redouble their efforts to achieve a greater degree of inclusion that would help in the resolution of very serious problems faced by the DRC.
Delegates of United Nations Human Rights Council should offer recommendations to child protection and possible solutions to problems targeting civilians especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
ROHINGYA HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
The Rohingya refugee crisis started in 2015, and so far 65,000 of Rohingya people have become displaced. Rohingya people have been badly treated by governments in both Myanmar and Bangladesh, with reports of limited basic services, restricted movement and institutionalized community segregation.
Even though Myanmar is under civilian leadership, its military, known as the culprit of many human rights abuses, still holds a strong position in the state. Rohingya people are Muslims whose citizenship was taken away in 1982 and have since then often been referred to as illegal immigrants. United Nations Human Rights Council proposed to send a fact-finding mission to Myanmar to investigate the crimes against the people; however Myanmar's government rejected it. There is considerable discontent with the ruling Bamar majority, comprising one third of the population, among ethnic minorities in Myanmar.
Rohingya people's statelessness and discrimination became public knowledge soon after hundreds of its people were forced to board a ship with no fuel and sail endlessly of the coast of Myanmar. Human rights violation of an ethnic minority by an ethnic majority must be addressed in the Human Rights Council and its delegates must present credible recommendations to the General Assembly.
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
* Observer state (dual role)
the United Kingdom
the United States / Myanmar*
ILLICIT TRAFFICKING OF ARTS AND ARTIFACTS FROM CONFLICT AREAS
Trafficking in cultural goods can take different forms, ranging from theft from cultural heritage institutions or private collections, through looting of archaeological sites to the displacement of artifacts due to war.
Illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property are causes of the impoverishment of the cultural heritage of origin countries of the property. It is sometimes linked to organized crime, money laundering or even terrorism. International co-operation constitutes one of the most efficient means of protecting each country's cultural property against all the dangers resulting there from.
At the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s, the number of thefts was increasing both in museums and at archaeological sites, particularly in the countries of the South. In the North, private collectors and, sometimes, official institutions, were increasingly offered objects that had been fraudulently imported or were of unidentified origin.
It is in this context, and to address such situations, the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property was created in 1970.
Many States Parties to the 1970 Convention have established specialized police units to prevent and fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural property. These specialized police units also play a crucial role, by creating a comprehensive national and regional network, in recovering stolen or lost cultural property, and their return to their place of origin.
lllegal excavations and looting increase exponentially in conflict areas. In recent decades, looting produced most damage in countries such as Syria and Iraq. These actions have damaged many historical sites and museums, and important Syrian cultural property has disappeared from the country to end up on the black market and/or in private collections.
Numerous archaeological sites in Syria are being systematically targeted for clandestine excavations by well-organized and often armed groups. Excavated archaeological objects of cultural significance make a lucrative trade for unscrupulous dealers operating both locally and internationally. Sites situated near the borders are, in general, more susceptible to being targeted by looters who take advantage of their location to quickly and illegally export artifacts out of Syria.
UNESCO delegates should include following problems in their recommendations to General Assembly:
- lack of consistent terminology and legal definitions
- lack of consistent legislation, in particular concerning control of importations of cultural goods
- lack of information and data on trafficking in cultural goods
- difficulties in sharing information between relevant authorities
TRIBAL TRADITIONS AND WESTERN CULTURE IN EDUCATION
Centuries long colonization by the western powers affected education taught to local people. Their traditions and language vanished before western values and education. Locals were often considered uneducated and wild, since they were not tamed by "the western sociological value system".
Modern society bears the same consequences of this colonization. In addition to problems of colonized areas, some sovereign countries ignore ethnic minority rights in education system. Often governments lack more hours taught in specific ethnic language and traditions of a specific group.
Lack of education for indigenous and ethnic groups continue to spread disparity between the youth and their ethnic and/or indigenous background.
Education, in addition, offers self-determination for each member of ethnic group. Younger generations could easily find themselves trapped between majority in the society, and minority they represent.
Councils creating national curricula should involve indigenous and ethnic members of the society, to represent equality in the system. In addition, it is the government’s responsibility to teach all students, no matter which background, about the history and traditions of their country.
Cultural diversity is important in face of globalization, since culture plays a vital role in sustainable development.
Delegates should focus on creating a Convention that would set guidelines for Member States in reforming curricula for their educational system.
Brazil / Russian Federation
Observer states (dual roles)
Indonesia / Peru
the United States
Japan / Saudi Arabia
COMMON EUROPEAN DEFENCE FORCE
The Common Security and Defence Policy, founded in 1999, is an essential tool in the EU’s foreign policy. It gives the European Union the possibility to intervene outside the EU for civilian and military crisis management missions and operations, aimed at peace-keeping, conflict prevention and strengthening international security.
Shaken from terrorist attacks and non-existent relations with Russia, it is no wonder the European Council has tackled with Common Security and Defense Policy. Yet, Visegrad group Member States, those closest to the Russian border keep calling on military enforcement in those areas of European Union.
The EU has 15 military operations and civilian missions outside the EU. All EU missions and operations are conducted in accordance with international law, generally on the basis of a UN mandate and/or the invitation of the national authorities of the country in question.
Considering threats from the new United States administration in leveling the NATO debt, the topic of Common Defense force could raise more support within Member States now than ever before. In addition, the Member State currently in the process of leaving the European Union, contributes almost 25% to EU defence expenditure.
European Council delegates should also keep in mind diplomatic repercussions of such action. In addition, funding, personnel and machinery could raise heavy debates within European Council.
ENGAGEMENT WITH GOVERNMENTS OF NORTH AFRICA: PREVENTING MIGRATION CASUALTIES AND MANAGING INTEGRATION
In 2014, the European Council set a strategic agenda of five priority areas for longer term European Union action. One of the priorities is “EU as a strong global actor”.
In recent months, Members of the European Commission have expanded their cooperation with numerous countries on the African continent. Still, its greatest security threat comes from the region of North Africa.
European intelligence agencies reports show most terrorists come from the region of North Africa. In addition, most victims of shipwreck in the Mediterranean, saved through Frotnex’s Operation Triton are from North Africa.
The European Council must develop guidelines that would set as a mold for its foreign affairs with governments in North Africa, as well as with governments hosting numerous refugees from conflict areas. By doing so, the European Council would be ready in case of another mass refugee crisis, similar to the one in 2015.
In addition, the European Council should set guidelines in managing refugee centers and discussing integration in European society for refugees and migrants.